Pathological cysts are areas of bone destruction that are filled with pathological fluid and usually surrounded by wall with special characteristics. These cysts are mostly pathological and occasionally congenital. The most important causing factor is dental infections that usually begin with simple tooth decay which if left without treatment it develops into larger cavity and might end up by nerve damage and formation of bacterial colony at the ending portion of the tooth root.

Pathological cysts are usually active. If they are not detected or left untreated, they develop and grow at the expense of the surrounding jaw bones. In some cases, they reach relatively large sizes. At this stage, the patient begins to complain from pain and/or swelling in the cheek and /or face.

The only treatment for cysts is surgical removal. The lost jawbone will usually recover either through normal bone regeneration or through bone grafting procedures.